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PROPANE (68476-49-3, 74-98-6, 68920-07-0, 70913-86-9, 69430-33-7)
Propane () is a three-carbon alkane with the molecular formula C3H8. It is a gas at standard temperature and pressure, but compressible to a transportable liquid. A by-product of natural gas processing and petroleum refining, it is commonly used as a fuel for barbecue grills.
BUTANE (68514-31-8, 106-97-8, 68476-42-6)
Butane () is an organic compound with the formula C4H10 that is an alkane with four carbon atoms. Butane is a gas at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. The term may refer to either of two structural isomers, n-butane or isobutane (also called "methylpropane"), or to a mixture of these isomers.
CYCLOHEXANE (25012-93-5, 110-82-7, 68411-76-7, 68512-15-2, 68609-05-2)
Cyclohexane is a cycloalkane with the molecular formula C6H12 (the alkyl is abbreviated Cy). Cyclohexane is mainly used for the industrial production of adipic acid and caprolactam, which are precursors to nylon. Cyclohexane is a colourless, flammable liquid with a distinctive detergent-like odor, reminiscent of cleaning products (in which it is sometimes used).
HEXANE (110-54-3, 68476-44-8, 92112-69-1)
n-hexane · n-hexane, 3-(13)C-labeled cpd · n-hexane, 2-(13)C-labeled cpd
Hexane is an alkane of six carbon atoms, with the chemical formula C6H14. The term may refer to any of the five structural isomers with that formula, or to a mixture of them. In IUPAC nomenclature, however, hexane is the unbranched isomer (n-hexane); the other four isomers are named as methylated derivatives of pentane and butane.
octane (111-65-9, 31372-91-5, 50985-84-7)
Octane is a hydrocarbon and an alkane with the chemical formula C8H18, and the condensed structural formula CH3(CH2)6CH3. Octane has many structural isomers that differ by the amount and location of branching in the carbon chain. One of these isomers, 2,2,4-trimethylpentane (isooctane) is used as one of the standard values in the octane rating scale.
NONANE (111-84-2, 66039-00-7)
Nonane is a linear alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C9H20. It is a colorless, flammable liquid, occurring primarily in the component of the petroleum distillate fraction commonly called kerosene, which is used as a heating, tractor, and jet fuel. Nonane is also used as a solvent, distillation chaser, fuel additive, and a component in biodegradable detergents.
DECANE (73138-29-1, 124-18-5, 63335-87-5)
Decane is an alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula C10H22. Although 75 structural isomers are possible for decane, the term usually refers to the normal-decane ("n-decane"), with the formula CH3(CH2)8CH3. All isomers, however, exhibit similar properties and little attention is paid to the composition.
ETHANE (68475-58-1, 74-84-0)
Ethane ( or ) is an organic chemical compound with chemical formula C 2H 6. At standard temperature and pressure, ethane is a colorless, odorless gas. Like many hydrocarbons, ethane is isolated on an industrial scale from natural gas and as a petrochemical byproduct of petroleum refining.
Isopentane, C5H12, also called methylbutane or 2-methylbutane, is a branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms. Isopentane is an extremely volatile and extremely flammable liquid at room temperature and pressure. The normal boiling point is just a few degrees above room temperature and isopentane will readily boil and evaporate away on a warm day.
n-heptane · n-heptane, ion (1+)
n-Heptane is the straight-chain alkane with the chemical formula H3C(CH2)5CH3 or C7H16. When used as a test fuel component in anti-knock test engines, a 100% heptane fuel is the zero point of the octane rating scale (the 100 point is a 100% iso-octane). Octane number equates to the anti-knock qualities of a comparison mixture of heptane and isooctane which is expressed as the percentage of isooctane in heptane and is listed on pumps for gasoline (petrol) dispensed globally.
PENTANE (87741-01-3, 102056-77-9, 109-66-0, 68476-43-7, 68647-60-9, 68476-55-1)
Pentane is an organic compound with the formula C5H12—that is, an alkane with five carbon atoms. The term may refer to any of three structural isomers, or to a mixture of them: in the IUPAC nomenclature, however, pentane means exclusively the n-pentane isomer; the other two are called isopentane (methylbutane) and neopentane (dimethylpropane). Cyclopentane is not an isomer of pentane because it has only 10 hydrogen atoms where pentane has 12.
DODECANE (93924-07-3, 112-40-3, 93685-81-5)
Dodecane (also known as dihexyl, bihexyl, adakane 12 or duodecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)10CH3 (or C12H26), an oily liquid of the paraffin series. It has 355 isomers. It is used as a solvent, distillation chaser, and scintillator component.
3-METHYLPENTANE (75-83-2, 79-29-8, 96-14-0, 107-83-5)
3-Methylpentane is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14. It is a structural isomer of hexane composed of a methyl group bonded to the third carbon atom in a pentane chain. It is of similar structure to the isomeric 2-methylpentane, which has the methyl group located on the second carbon of the pentane chain.
2-METHYLPENTANE (75-83-2, 43133-95-5, 79-29-8, 107-83-5, 96-14-0)
2-Methylpentane, trivially known as isohexane, is a branched-chain alkane with the molecular formula C6H14. It is a structural isomer of hexane composed of a methyl group bonded to the second carbon atom in a pentane chain.
Isobutane, also known as i-butane or methylpropane, is a chemical compound with molecular formula C 4H 10 and is an isomer of butane. It is the simplest alkane with a tertiary carbon. Isobutane is used as a feedstock in the petrochemical industry, for example in the synthesis of isooctane.
Neopentane, also called 2,2-dimethylpropane, is a double-branched-chain alkane with five carbon atoms. Neopentane is a flammable gas at room temperature and pressure which can condense into a highly volatile liquid on a cold day, in an ice bath, or when compressed to a higher pressure. Neopentane is the simplest alkane with a quaternary carbon, and has achiral tetrahedral symmetry.
2,2-DIMETHYLBUTANE (75-83-2, 79-29-8, 107-83-5, 96-14-0)
2,2-Dimethylbutane, trivially known as neohexane, is an organic compound with formula C6H14 or (H3C-)3-C-CH2-CH3. It is therefore an alkane, indeed the most compact and branched of the hexane isomers — the only one with a quaternary carbon and a butane (C4) backbone. It can be synthesised by the hydroisomerisation of 2,3-dimethylbutane using an acid catalyst.
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane (540-84-1, 26635-64-3)
2,2,4-Trimethylpentane, also known as isooctane or iso-octane, is an organic compound with the formula (CH3)3CCH2CH(CH3)2. It is one of several isomers of octane (C8H18). This particular isomer is the standard 100 point on the octane rating scale (the zero point is n-heptane).
Undecane (61193-21-3, 1120-21-4)
Undecane (also known as hendecane) is a liquid alkane hydrocarbon with the chemical formula CH3(CH2)9CH3. It is used as a mild sex attractant for various types of moths and cockroaches, and an alert signal for a variety of ants. It has 159 isomers.
2,3-DIMETHYLBUTANE (75-83-2, 79-29-8, 107-83-5, 96-14-0)
2,3-Dimethylbutane is an isomer of hexane. It has the chemical formula (CH3)2CHCH(CH3)2. It is a colorless liquid which boils at 57.9 °C.