Cyclic compounds (1)
Designer drugs (1)
Food Additives (1)
Sigma Aldrich (1)
gamma-Butyrolactone (96-48-0, 187997-16-6)
gamma Butyrolactone · 4-Butyrolactone · 4-Hydroxybutyric Acid Lactone
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor and profoundly disgusting taste. Soluble in water, GBL is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry as well as being used as a flavouring, as a cleaning solvent, as a superglue remover, and as a solvent in some wet aluminium electrolytic capacitors. In humans it acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol.
Coramine · Coramin · Cordiamine
Nikethamide is a stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle. Widely known by its former trade name of Coramine, it was used in the mid-twentieth century as a medical countermeasure against tranquilizer overdoses, before the advent of endotracheal intubation and positive-pressure lung expansion. It is no longer commonly considered to be of value for such purposes.
isoguvacine hydrochloride · isoguvacine hydrobromide
Isoguvacine is a GABAA receptor agonist used in scientific research.
Xanomeline (LY-246,708; Lumeron, Memcor) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with reasonable selectivity for the M1 and M4 subtypes, though it is also known to act as a M5 receptor antagonist. It has been studied for the treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, particularly the cognitive and negative symptoms, although gastrointestinal side effects led to a high drop-out rate in clinical trials. Despite this, xanomeline has been shown to have reasonable efficacy for the treatment of schizophrenia symptoms, and one recent human study found robust improvements in verbal learning and short-term memory associated with xanomeline treatment.
THIP · LU-2-030 · 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol
Gaboxadol, also known as 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), is a conformationally constrained derivative of the alkaloid muscimol that was first synthesized in 1977 by the Danish chemist Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen. In the early 1980s gaboxadol was the subject of a series of pilot studies that tested its efficacy as an analgesic and anxiolytic, as well as a treatment for tardive dyskinesia, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and spasticity. It was not until 1996 that researchers attempted to harness gaboxadol's frequently reported sedative "adverse effect" for the treatment of insomnia, resulting in a series of clinical trials sponsored by Lundbeck and Merck.
Rimcazole is an antagonist of the sigma receptor as well as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Sigma receptors are thought to be involved in the drug psychosis that can be induced by some drugs such as phencyclidine and cocaine, and rimcazole was originally researched as a potential antipsychotic with a different mechanism of action to traditional antipsychotic drugs. Trials proved inconclusive and rimcazole was not pursued for this application, but other sigma antagonists continue to be researched for a variety of potential applications.
Epibatidine is a putative alkaloid that is secreted by the Ecuadoran frog Epipedobates anthonyi. It was discovered by John W. Daly in 1974, but its structure was not fully elucidated until 1992.
Bremazocine (83829-76-9, 75684-07-0, 79665-42-2)
bremazocine hydrochloride, (2R)-isomer · bremazocine hydrochloride, (+-)-isomer · 2-(1-hydroxy-cyclopropylmethyl)-5-ethyl-9,9-dimethyl-2'-hydroxy-6,7-benzomorphan
Bremazocine is a κ-opioid receptor agonist related to pentazocine. It has potent and long-lasting analgesic and diuretic effects. It has 200 times the activity of morphine, but appears to have no addictive properties and does not depress breathing.
SKF-97,541 is a compound used in scientific research which acts primarily as a selective GABAB receptor agonist. It has sedative effects in animal studies and is widely used in research into potential treatment of various types of drug addiction.
Xanthinol nicotinate (437-74-1)
Xantinol Nicotinate · Xanthinol Niacinate · Xavin
Xanthinol is a drug prepared from theophylline used as a vasodilator. It is most often used as the salt with niacin (nicotinic acid), known as xantinol nicotinate.
2-hydroxy-5-(2-(hydroxy-3-(4-((1-methyl-4-trifluoromethyl)-1H-imidazol-2-yl)phenoxy)propyl)aminoethoxy)benzamide · CGP-20712 · CGP 20712A
vigabatrin (68506-86-5, 60643-86-9)
Sabril · gamma-Vinyl-gamma-Aminobutyric Acid · gamma-Vinyl-GABA
Vigabatrin, brand name Sabril, is an antiepileptic drug that inhibits the breakdown of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) by acting as a suicide inhibitor of the enzyme GABA transaminase (GABA-T). It is also known as γ-vinyl-GABA, and is a structural analogue of GABA, but does not bind to GABA receptors.
Tsitizin · cytisine hydrochloride, hydrate · cytisine hydrochloride
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae. It has been used medically to help with smoking cessation. Its molecular structure has some similarity to that of nicotine and it has similar pharmacological effects.
Revivon · Diprenorphine Hydrochloride
Diprenorphine (brand name Revivon; former developmental code name M5050), also known as diprenorfin, is a non-selective, high-affinity, weak partial agonist of the μ- (MOR), κ- (KOR), and δ-opioid receptor (DOR) (with equal affinity) that is employed in veterinary medicine as an opioid antagonist. It is used to reverse the effects of super-potent opioid analgesics such as etorphine and carfentanil that are used for tranquilizing large animals. The drug is not approved for use in humans.
GYKI 52466 · 1-(p-aminophenyl)-4-methyl-7,8-methylenedioxy-5H-2,3-benzodiazepine hydrochloride
GYKI-52466 is a 2,3-benzodiazepine that acts as an ionotropic glutamate receptor antagonist, which is a non-competitive AMPA receptor antagonist (IC50 values are 10-20, ~ 450 and >> 50 μM for AMPA- , kainate- and NMDA-induced responses respectively), orally-active anticonvulsant, and skeletal muscle relaxant. Unlike conventional 1,4-benzodiazepines, GYKI-52466 and related 2,3-benzodiazepines do not act on GABAA receptors. Like other AMPA receptor antagonists, GYKI-52466 has anticonvulsant and neuroprotective properties.
Ifenprodil (23210-56-2, 23210-58-4)
4-benzyl-alpha-(p-hydroxyphenyl)-beta-methyl-1-piperidineethanol · ifenprodil tartrate (2:1), (R-(R*,R*))-isomer · ifenprodil, (R*,S*)-(+-)-isomer
Ifenprodil is an inhibitor of the NMDA receptor, specifically of GluN1 (glycine-binding NMDA receptor subunit 1) and GluN2B (glutamate-binding NMDA receptor subunit 2) subunits. Additionally, ifenprodil inhibits GIRK channels, and interacts with alpha1 adrenergic, serotonin, and sigma receptors. NMDA receptors are multimeric ionotropic glutamate receptors composed of four subunits.