Cyclic compounds (1)
Designer drugs (1)
Food Additives (1)
gamma-Butyrolactone (96-48-0, 187997-16-6)
gamma Butyrolactone · 4-Butyrolactone · 4-Hydroxybutyric Acid Lactone
γ-Butyrolactone (GBL) is a hygroscopic colorless liquid with a weak characteristic odor and profoundly disgusting taste. Soluble in water, GBL is a common solvent and reagent in chemistry as well as being used as a flavouring, as a cleaning solvent, as a superglue remover, and as a solvent in some wet aluminium electrolytic capacitors. In humans it acts as a prodrug for γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB), and it is used as a recreational intoxicant with effects similar to alcohol.
Coramine · Coramin · Cordiamine
Nikethamide is a stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle. Widely known by its former trade name of Coramine, it was used in the mid-twentieth century as a medical countermeasure against tranquilizer overdoses, before the advent of endotracheal intubation and positive-pressure lung expansion. It is no longer commonly considered to be of value for such purposes.
Xanomeline (LY-246,708; Lumeron, Memcor) is a muscarinic acetylcholine receptor agonist with reasonable selectivity for the M1 and M4 subtypes, though it is also known to act as a M5 receptor antagonist. It has been studied for the treatment of both Alzheimer's disease and schizophrenia, particularly the cognitive and negative symptoms, although gastrointestinal side effects led to a high drop-out rate in clinical trials. Despite this, xanomeline has been shown to have reasonable efficacy for the treatment of schizophrenia symptoms, and one recent human study found robust improvements in verbal learning and short-term memory associated with xanomeline treatment.
isoguvacine hydrochloride · isoguvacine hydrobromide
Isoguvacine is a GABAA receptor agonist used in scientific research.
MMDA (3-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxyamphetamine; 5-methoxy-MDA) is a psychedelic and entactogen drug of the amphetamine class. It is an analogue of lophophine, MDA, and MDMA. MMDA was described by Alexander Shulgin in his book PiHKAL.
THIP · LU-2-030 · 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol
Gaboxadol, also known as 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo(5,4-c)pyridin-3-ol (THIP), is a conformationally constrained derivative of the alkaloid muscimol that was first synthesized in 1977 by the Danish chemist Povl Krogsgaard-Larsen. In the early 1980s gaboxadol was the subject of a series of pilot studies that tested its efficacy as an analgesic and anxiolytic, as well as a treatment for tardive dyskinesia, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and spasticity. It was not until 1996 that researchers attempted to harness gaboxadol's frequently reported sedative "adverse effect" for the treatment of insomnia, resulting in a series of clinical trials sponsored by Lundbeck and Merck.
TFMPP · 1-(m-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine · 1-(3-trifluoromethylphenyl)piperazine
3-Trifluoromethylphenylpiperazine (TFMPP) is a recreational drug of the piperazine chemical class. Usually in combination with its analogue benzylpiperazine (BZP), it is sold as an alternative to the illicit drug MDMA ("Ecstasy") under the name "Legal X".
alpha-Amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic Acid · AMPA, (R)-Isomer, Monohydrobromide · alpha Amino 3 hydroxy 5 methyl 4 isoxazolepropionic Acid
AMPA (α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid) is a compound that is a specific agonist for the AMPA receptor, where it mimics the effects of the neurotransmitter glutamate. There is several types of glutamatergic ion channels in the central nervous system including AMPA, kainic acid and N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) channels. In the synapse, these receptors serve very different purposes.
N-methylphenethylamine hydrochloride · N-methylphenylethylamine · N-methyl-beta-phenethylamine
N-Methylphenethylamine (NMPEA) is a naturally occurring trace amine neuromodulator in humans that is derived from the trace amine, phenethylamine (PEA). It has been detected in human urine (<1 μg over 24 hours) and is produced by phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase with phenethylamine as a substrate. PEA and NMPEA are both alkaloids that are found in a number of different plant species as well.
Rimcazole is an antagonist of the sigma receptor as well as a dopamine reuptake inhibitor. Sigma receptors are thought to be involved in the drug psychosis that can be induced by some drugs such as phencyclidine and cocaine, and rimcazole was originally researched as a potential antipsychotic with a different mechanism of action to traditional antipsychotic drugs. Trials proved inconclusive and rimcazole was not pursued for this application, but other sigma antagonists continue to be researched for a variety of potential applications.
Xanthinol nicotinate (437-74-1)
Xantinol Nicotinate · Xanthinol Niacinate · Xavin
Xanthinol is a drug prepared from theophylline used as a vasodilator. It is most often used as the salt with niacin (nicotinic acid), known as xantinol nicotinate.
1H-imidazo(4,5-b)pyridine · 1-deazapurine
4-(4'-chlorophenyl)-4-piperidinol · 39512-49-7 · 4-(4-chlorophenyl)-4-hydroxypiperidine
Tsitizin · cytisine hydrochloride, hydrate · cytisine hydrochloride
Cytisine, also known as baptitoxine and sophorine, is an alkaloid that occurs naturally in several plant genera, such as Laburnum and Cytisus of the family Fabaceae. It has been used medically to help with smoking cessation. Its molecular structure has some similarity to that of nicotine and it has similar pharmacological effects.
Win 13 146 · teclozine · N,N'-(p-phenylenedimethylene)-bis(2,2-dichloro-N- (2-ethoxyethyl))acetamide
Teclozan is an antiprotozoal agent. It is a dichloroacetamide.
NORFENFLURAMINE (673-18-7, 1886-26-6)
Norfenfluramine, or 3-trifluoromethylamphetamine, is a never-marketed drug of the amphetamine family which behaves as a serotonin and norepinephrine releasing agent and potent 5-HT2A, 5-HT2B, and 5-HT2C agonist. The action of norfenfluramine on 5-HT2B receptors on heart valves leads to a characteristic pattern of heart failure following proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts on the tricuspid valve, known as cardiac fibrosis. This side effect led to the withdrawal of fenfluramine as an anorectic agent worldwide, and to the withdrawal of benfluorex in Europe, as both fenfluramine and benfluorex form norfenfluramine as an active metabolite.
DL-Methamphetamine (4846-07-5, 7632-10-2, 51-57-0)
Methamphetamine · Desoxyn · Methylamphetamine
Methamphetamine (contracted from N-methylamphetamine) is a strong central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder and obesity. Methamphetamine was discovered in 1893 and exists as two enantiomers: levo-methamphetamine and dextro-methamphetamine. Methamphetamine properly refers to a specific chemical, the racemic free base, which is an equal mixture of levomethamphetamine and dextromethamphetamine in their pure amine forms.
Epibatidine is a putative alkaloid that is secreted by the Ecuadoran frog Epipedobates anthonyi. It was discovered by John W. Daly in 1974, but its structure was not fully elucidated until 1992.