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Kappa agonists, Local anesthetics, Anesthetics

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meperidine (57-42-1)  
Demerol  ·  Dolin  ·  Pethidine
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class. Synthesized in 1939 as a potential anticholinergic agent by the German chemist Otto Eisleb, its analgesic properties were first recognized by Otto Schaumann while working for IG Farben, Germany. Pethidine is the prototype of a large family of analgesics including the pethidine 4-phenylpiperidines (piminodine, anileridine and others), the prodines (alphaprodine, MPPP, etc.), bemidones (ketobemidone, etc.) and others more distant, including diphenoxylate and analogues.

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isoflurane (26675-46-7)  
Isoflurane, sold under the trade name Forane among others, is a general anesthetic. It can be used to start or maintain anesthesia. Often another medication, however, is used to start anesthesia due to airway irritation with isoflurane.
propofol (2078-54-8)  
Diprivan  ·  ICI 35,868  ·  Pisa Brand of Propofol
Propofol, marketed as Diprivan among others, is a short-acting medication that results in a decreased level of consciousness and lack of memory for events. Its uses include the starting and maintenance of general anesthesia, sedation for mechanically ventilated adults, and procedural sedation. It is also used for status epilepticus if other medications have not worked.
halothane (151-67-7)  
Fluothane  ·  Ftorotan  ·  Narcotan
Halothane, sold under the brandname Fluothane among others, is a general anesthetic. It can be used to start or maintain anaesthesia. One of its benefits is that it does not increase the production of saliva which can be particularly useful in those who are difficult to intubate.
Etidocaine (36637-18-0, 60108-68-1, 38188-42-0, 38188-41-9)  
Duranest  ·  W19053  ·  W 19053
Etidocaine, marketed under the trade name Duranest, is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. Etidocaine has a long duration of activity, and the main disadvantage of using during dentistry is increased bleeding during surgery.
Prilocaine hydrochloride (1786-81-8)  
Prilocaine  ·  Citanest  ·  Propitocaine
Prilocaine () is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In its injectable form (trade name Citanest), it is often used in dentistry. It is also often combined with lidocaine as a topical preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for treatment of conditions like paresthesia.
prilocaine (721-50-6)  
Citanest  ·  Prilocaine Hydrochloride  ·  Propitocaine
Prilocaine () is a local anesthetic of the amino amide type first prepared by Claes Tegner and Nils Löfgren. In its injectable form (trade name Citanest), it is often used in dentistry. It is also often combined with lidocaine as a topical preparation for dermal anesthesia (lidocaine/prilocaine or EMLA), for treatment of conditions like paresthesia.
dibucaine (61-12-1, 85-79-0)  
Nupercaine  ·  Nupercainal  ·  Cinchocaine
Cinchocaine (INN/BAN) or dibucaine (USAN) is an amide local anesthetic. Among the most potent and toxic of the long-acting local anesthetics, current use of cinchocaine is generally restricted to spinal and topical anesthesia. It is sold under the brand names Cincain, Nupercainal, Nupercaine and Sovcaine.
Chloroprocaine hydrochloride (3858-89-7)  
chloroprocaine  ·  Nesacaine  ·  chlor-procaine
Chloroprocaine (trade name Nesacaine, Nesacaine-MPF) (often in the hydrochloride salt form as the aforementioned trade names) is a local anesthetic given by injection during surgical procedures and labor and delivery. Chloroprocaine vasodilates; this is in contrast to cocaine which vasoconstrics. Chloroprocaine is an ester anesthetic.
midazolam (59467-70-8)  
Versed  ·  Midazolam Hydrochloride  ·  Dormicum
Midazolam, marketed under the trade name Versed, among others, is a medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation. It works by inducing sleepiness, decreasing anxiety, and causing a loss of ability to create new memories. It is also useful for the treatment of seizures.
Pregnanolone (128-20-1)  
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone (INN), as well as 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5β-THP) or 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone. It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects. It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.
Midazolam maleate (59467-94-6)  
Versed  ·  Midazolam  ·  Midazolam Hydrochloride
thiamylal (77-27-0)  
Surital  ·  Thiamylal Sodium  ·  Thioquinalbarbitone
Thiamylal (Surital) is a barbiturate derivative invented in the 1950s. It has sedative, anticonvulsant, and hypnotic effects, and is used as a strong but short acting sedative. Thiamylal is still in current use, primarily for induction in surgical anaesthesia or as an anticonvulsant to counteract side effects from other anaesthetics.
Thiamylal sodium (337-47-3)  
Thiamylal  ·  Surital  ·  Thioquinalbarbitone
bupivacaine (2180-92-9, 38396-39-3)  
Marcaine  ·  Bupivacaine Hydrochloride  ·  Sensorcaine
Bupivacaine, marketed under the brand name Marcaine among others, is a medication used to decrease feeling in a specific area. It is used by injecting it into the area, around a nerve that supplies the area, or into the spinal canal's epidural space. It is available mixed with a small amount of epinephrine to make it last longer.
Allopregnanolone (128-20-1, 516-55-2)  
Pregnanolone  ·  3 alpha, 5 beta-Tetrahydroprogesterone  ·  Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5beta)-isomer
clonidine (4205-90-7)  
Catapres  ·  Clonidine Hydrochloride  ·  Dixarit
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions. It is classified as a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist and imidazoline receptor agonist that has been in clinical use since 1966.
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Kappa agonists
Local anesthetics
Anesthetics
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