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Kappa agonists, Neurotoxins

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Analgesics (2)
Convulsants (2)
Cyclic compounds (2)
Drugs acting on the nervous system (2)
Opioid receptor ligands (2)
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Delta-opioid agonists (1)
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Local anesthetics (1)
Monoamine reuptake inhibitors (1)
Mu-opioid agonists (1)
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Piperidines (1)
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Serotonin-norepinephrine-dopamine reuptake inhibitors (1)
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meperidine (57-42-1)  
Demerol  ·  Dolin  ·  Pethidine
Pethidine, also known as meperidine and sold under the brand name Demerol among others, is a synthetic opioid pain medication of the phenylpiperidine class. Synthesized in 1939 as a potential anticholinergic agent by the German chemist Otto Eisleb, its analgesic properties were first recognized by Otto Schaumann while working for IG Farben, Germany. Pethidine is the prototype of a large family of analgesics including the pethidine 4-phenylpiperidines (piminodine, anileridine and others), the prodines (alphaprodine, MPPP, etc.), bemidones (ketobemidone, etc.) and others more distant, including diphenoxylate and analogues.
Xorphanol (77287-89-9)  
Xorphanol (INN) (developmental code name TR-5379 or TR-5379M), also known as xorphanol mesylate (USAN), is an opioid analgesic of the morphinan family that was never marketed. Xorphanol is a mixed agonist–antagonist of opioid receptors, acting preferentially as a high-efficacy partial agonist/near-full agonist of the κ-opioid receptor (Ki = 0.4 nM; EC50 = 3.3 nM; Imax = 49%; IA = 0.84) and to a lesser extent as a partial agonist of the μ-opioid receptor (Ki = 0.25 nM; IC50 = 3.4 nM; Imax = 29%) with lower relative intrinsic activity and marked antagonistic potential (including the ability to antagonize morphine-induced effects and induce opioid withdrawal in opioid-dependent individuals). The drug has also been found to act as an agonist of the δ-opioid receptor (Ki = 1.0 nM; IC50 = 8 nM; Imax = 76%).

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(+/-)-Epibatidine (140111-52-0)  
Epibatidine is a putative alkaloid that is secreted by the Ecuadoran frog Epipedobates anthonyi. It was discovered by John W. Daly in 1974, but its structure was not fully elucidated until 1992.
T2 Toxin (21259-20-1)  
Fusaritoxin  ·  Fusariotoxin  ·  T 2 Toxin
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is a naturally occurring mold byproduct of Fusarium spp. fungus which is toxic to humans and animals.
ZEARALENONE (17924-92-4, 36455-70-6)  
F2 Toxin  ·  F-2 Toxin  ·  F 2 Toxin
Zearalenone (ZEN), also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium and Gibberella species. Particularly, is produced by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium incarnatum. Several Fusarium species produce toxic substances of considerable concern to livestock and poultry producers, namely deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and zearalenone.
QUINPIROLE (74196-92-2, 80373-22-4)  
Quinpirole is a psychoactive drug and research chemical which acts as a selective D2 and D3 receptor agonist. It is used in scientific research. Quinpirole has been shown to increase locomotion and sniffing behavior in mice treated with it.
Skf-81297 (71636-61-8)  
SKF 81297  ·  SK and F 81297  ·  SK and F-81297
SKF-81,297 is a synthetic drug of the benzazepine chemical class that acts as a selective dopamine D1/D5 receptor full agonist, and produces a characteristic stimulant-like pattern of anorexia, hyperactivity and self-administration in animals. This profile is shared with several related drugs such as 6-Br-APB and SKF-82,958, but not with certain other D1 full agonists such as A-77,636, reflecting functional selectivity of D1 activation. Newer findings reveal that SKF-81,297 additionally acts as a partial agonist at D1-D2 receptor heteromers.
spiperone (749-02-0)  
Spiroperidol  ·  Spiroperone
Spiperone (Spiroperidol; brand name: Spiropitan (JP)) is a typical antipsychotic and research chemical belonging to the butyrophenone chemical class. It is licensed for clinical use in Japan as a treatment for schizophrenia. Additionally, spiperone was identified by compound screening to be an activator of Ca2+ activated Cl− channels (CaCCs), thus a potential target for therapy of cystic fibrosis.
TETRODOTOXIN (4368-28-9)  
Tarichatoxin  ·  Tetradotoxin  ·  Fugu Toxin
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in the animals.
Skf 83566 (94344-79-3, 99295-33-7)  
SK and F-83566  ·  1H-3-benzazepin-7-ol, 8-bromo-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-3-methyl-5-phenyl-  ·  7-bromo-8-hydroxy-3-methyl-1-phenyl-2,3,4,5-tetrahydro-1H-3-benzazepine
3-Apmpa (127729-35-5)  
SKF-97,541 is a compound used in scientific research which acts primarily as a selective GABAB receptor agonist. It has sedative effects in animal studies and is widely used in research into potential treatment of various types of drug addiction.
SPIRADOLINE (87151-85-7)  
Spiradoline (U-62066) is a drug which acts as a highly selective κ-opioid agonist. It has analgesic, diuretic and antitussive effects, and produces subjective effects in animals similar to those of ketazocine and alazocine. The main effect in humans is sedation, along with analgesic and diuretic effects, but significant side effects such as dysphoria and hallucinations have stopped it from being used clinically.
Acetylcholine perchlorate (927-86-6)  
Acetylcholine  ·  Acetylcholine Chloride  ·  Miochol
Nikethamide (59-26-7)  
Coramine  ·  Coramin  ·  Cordiamine
Nikethamide is a stimulant which mainly affects the respiratory cycle. Widely known by its former trade name of Coramine, it was used in the mid-twentieth century as a medical countermeasure against tranquilizer overdoses, before the advent of endotracheal intubation and positive-pressure lung expansion. It is no longer commonly considered to be of value for such purposes.
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