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aksci.com, Neurotoxins

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cypermethrin (52315-07-8, 67375-30-8, 97955-44-7)  
Sherpa  ·  Ripcord  ·  Cymbush
Cypermethrin is a synthetic pyrethroid used as an insecticide in large-scale commercial agricultural applications as well as in consumer products for domestic purposes. It behaves as a fast-acting neurotoxin in insects. It is easily degraded on soil and plants but can be effective for weeks when applied to indoor inert surfaces.
fipronil (120068-37-3)  
5-amino-1-(2,6-dichloro-alpha,alpha,alpha-trifluoro-p-tolyl)-4-trifluoromethylsulfinylpyrazole-3-carbonitile
Fipronil is a broad-spectrum insecticide that belongs to the phenylpyrazole chemical family. Fipronil disrupts the insect central nervous system by blocking GABA-gated chloride channels and glutamate-gated chloride (GluCl) channels. This causes hyperexcitation of contaminated insects' nerves and muscles.
quinolinic acid (89-00-9)  
Quinolinate  ·  Quinolinic Acid, Disodium Salt  ·  Quinolinic Acid, Strontium Salt
Quinolinic acid (abbreviated QUIN or QA), also known as pyridine-2,3-dicarboxylic acid, is a dicarboxylic acid with a pyridine backbone. It is a colorless solid. It is the biosynthetic precursor to nicotine.
METHIOCARB (2032-65-7)  
Methiocarb is a carbamate pesticide which is used as a bird repellent, insecticide, acaricide and molluscicide since the 1960s. Carbamates are widely used in agriculture as insecticides and herbicides. They are preferred instead of organochlorines because organochlorines are long lasting persistent in crops.
Varenicline (249296-44-4)  
Varenicline (trade name Chantix and Champix), is a prescription medication used to treat nicotine addiction. It both reduces cravings for and decreases the pleasurable effects of cigarettes and other tobacco products. It is a high-affinity partial agonist for the α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subtype (nACH) that leads to the release of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens when activated, and therefore, has the capacity to reduce the feelings of craving and withdrawal caused by smoking cessation.
flumazenil (78755-81-4)  
Ro 15-1788  ·  Romazicon  ·  Anexate
Flumazenil (also known as flumazepil, code name Ro 15-1788) is a selective benzodiazepine receptor antagonist available by injection and intranasal. It has antagonistic and antidote properties to therapeutically used benzodiazepines, through competitive inhibition. It was first introduced in 1987 by Hoffmann-La Roche under the trade name Anexate, but only approved by the FDA on December 20, 1991.
3-Chloropropanoic acid (107-94-8)  
3-chloropropionic acid  ·  3-chloropropionate  ·  UMB66
3-Chloropropanoic acid (also 3-chloropropionic acid) or UMB66 is a drug used in scientific research. It is structurally related to GHB and binds to the GHB receptor, but has no affinity for GABA receptors. It is also an active ingredient in some herbicide blends.
VECURONIUM BROMIDE (50700-72-6)  
Vecuronium  ·  Norcuron  ·  NC 45
Vecuronium bromide, sold under the brand name Norcuron among others, is a medication used as part of general anesthesia to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery or mechanical ventilation. It is also used to help with endotracheal intubation; however, suxamethonium (succinylcholine) is generally preferred if this needs to be done quickly. It is given by injection into a vein.
2-Propylpiperidine (458-88-8, 3238-60-6)  
coniine  ·  cicutine  ·  conicine
Coniine refers to a poisonous chemical compound, an alkaloid present in and isolable from poison hemlock (Conium maculatum), where its presence has been a source of significant economic, medical, and historico-cultural interest; coniine is also produced by the yellow pitcher plant (Sarracenia flava), and fool's parsley (Aethusa cynapium). Its ingestion and extended exposure are toxic to humans and all classes of livestock; its mechanism of poisoning involves disruption of the peripheral nervous system, with death caused by respiratory paralysis. The biosynthesis of coniine contains as its penultimate step the non-enzymatic cyclisation of 5-oxooctylamine to γ-coniceine, a Schiff base differing from coniiine only by its carbon-nitrogen double bond in the ring.
(+)-Bicuculline (485-49-4)  
Bicuculline is a phthalide-isoquinoline compound that is a light-sensitive competitive antagonist of GABAA receptors. It was originally identified in 1932 in plant alkaloid extracts and has been isolated from Dicentra cucullaria, Adlumia fungosa, and several Corydalis species (all in subfamily Fumarioideae, previously known as family Fumariaceae). Since it blocks the inhibitory action of GABA receptors, the action of bicuculline mimics epilepsy.

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T2 Toxin (21259-20-1)  
Fusaritoxin  ·  Fusariotoxin  ·  T 2 Toxin
T-2 Mycotoxin (pronounced as 'Tee-Two') is a trichothecene mycotoxin. It is a naturally occurring mold byproduct of Fusarium spp. fungus which is toxic to humans and animals.
ZEARALENONE (17924-92-4, 36455-70-6)  
F2 Toxin  ·  F-2 Toxin  ·  F 2 Toxin
Zearalenone (ZEN), also known as RAL and F-2 mycotoxin, is a potent estrogenic metabolite produced by some Fusarium and Gibberella species. Particularly, is produced by Fusarium graminearum, Fusarium culmorum, Fusarium cerealis, Fusarium equiseti, Fusarium verticillioides, and Fusarium incarnatum. Several Fusarium species produce toxic substances of considerable concern to livestock and poultry producers, namely deoxynivalenol, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, diacetoxyscirpenol (DAS) and zearalenone.
TETRODOTOXIN (4368-28-9)  
Tarichatoxin  ·  Tetradotoxin  ·  Fugu Toxin
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in the animals.
Tarichatoxin (4368-28-9)  
Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin. Its name derives from Tetraodontiformes, an order that includes pufferfish, porcupinefish, ocean sunfish, and triggerfish; several of these species carry the toxin. Although tetrodotoxin was discovered in these fish and found in several other aquatic animals (e.g., in blue-ringed octopuses, rough-skinned newts, and moon snails), it is actually produced by certain infecting or symbiotic bacteria like Pseudoalteromonas, Pseudomonas, and Vibrio as well as other species found in the animals.
SAXITOXIN (73603-72-2, 35523-89-8)  
Saxitoxin (STX) is a potent neurotoxin and the best-known paralytic shellfish toxin (PST). Ingestion of saxitoxin, usually by consumption of shellfish contaminated by toxic algal blooms, is responsible for the human illness known as paralytic shellfish poisoning (PSP). The term saxitoxin originates from the genus name of the butter clam (Saxidomus) from which it was first isolated.
DSP 4 (62078-98-2)  
DSP4  ·  az-DSP 4  ·  DSP-4
For the Super NES enhancement chip see List of Super NES enhancement chips DSP-4, or N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine, is a neurotoxin selective for noradrenergic neurons, capable of crossing the blood–brain barrier. It exerts transient effects in peripheral sympathetic neurons, but more permanent changes within neurons of the central nervous system. It can induce long-term depletion in cortical and spinal levels of noradrenaline.
Melitten (37231-28-0)  
Melittin  ·  Mellitin
1,2-Dibromotetrafluorobenzene (827-08-7)  
diphtheria toxin fragment B  ·  DTFB  ·  fragment B diphtheria toxin
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