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Caffeine (58-08-2, 95789-13-2)
Vivarin · No Doz · Caffedrine
Caffeine is a central nervous system (CNS) stimulant of the methylxanthine class. It is the world's most widely consumed psychoactive drug. Unlike many other psychoactive substances, it is legal and unregulated in nearly all parts of the world.
Theobromine, formerly known as xantheose, is a bitter alkaloid of the cacao plant, with the chemical formula C7H8N4O2. It is found in chocolate, as well as in a number of other foods, including the leaves of the tea plant, and the kola (or cola) nut. It is classified as a xanthine alkaloid, which also include the similar compounds theophylline and caffeine.
Trental · Torental · Pentoxil
Pentoxifylline, also known as oxpentifylline, is a xanthine derivative used as a drug to treat muscle pain in people with peripheral artery disease. It is generic and sold under many brand names worldwide.
Paraxanthine, or 1,7-dimethylxanthine, is a dimethyl derivative of xanthine, structurally related to caffeine. Like caffeine, paraxanthine is a psychoactive central nervous system (CNS) stimulant. It possesses a potency roughly equal to that of caffeine and is likely involved in the mediation of the effects of caffeine itself.
Lisofylline (LSF) is a synthetic small molecule with novel anti-inflammatory properties. LSF can effectively prevent type 1 diabetes in preclinical models and improves the function and viability of isolated or transplanted pancreatic islets. It is a metabolite of pentoxifylline.
HWA 285 · 1-(5'-oxohexyl)-3-methyl-7-propylxanthine · HWA-285
Propentofylline (HWA 285) is a xanthine derivative with purported neuroprotective effects.
DMPX (3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine) is a caffeine analog which displays affinity to A2 adenosine receptors, in contrast to the A1 subtype receptors. DMPX had 28× and 15× higher potency than caffeine in blocking peripheral and central NECA-responses. The locomotor stimulation caused by DMPX (ED50 10 μmol/kg) was similarly higher than caffeine.