Sex hormones (1)
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae (i.e., Leguminosae, or bean) family. Although isoflavones and closely related phytoestrogens are sold as dietary supplements, there is little scientific evidence for either the safety of long-term supplementation or of health benefits from these compounds.
biochanin A (491-80-5)
genistein 4-methyl ether · biochanin A, 14C-labeled
Biochanin A is an O-methylated isoflavone. It is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as flavonoids. Biochanin A can be found in red clover in soy, in alfalfa sprouts, in peanuts, in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and in other legumes.
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones. Daidzein and other isoflavones are produced in plants through the phenylpropanoid pathway of secondary metabolism and are used as signal carriers, and defense responses to pathogenic attacks. In humans, recent research has shown the viability of using daidzein in medicine for menopausal relief, osteoporosis, blood cholesterol, and lowering the risk of some hormone-related cancers, and heart disease.
Nobiletin is a flavonoid isolated from citrus peels. It is an O-methylated flavone that has the activity to rescue bulbectomy-induced memory impairment.
Formononetin is an O-methylated isoflavone.
6' Hydroxy Equol · 4' O Methyl Equol · 4' methoxy 7 isoflavanol
Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol) is an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein, a type of isoflavone found in soybeans and other plant sources, by bacterial flora in the intestines. While endogenous estrogenic hormones such as estradiol are steroids, equol is a nonsteroidal estrogen. However, only about 30-50% of people have intestinal bacteria that make equol.
Prunetin is an O-methylated isoflavone, a type of flavonoid. It has been isolated for the first time by Finnemore in 1910 in the bark of Prunus emarginata (the Oregon cherry). Prunetin isolated from pea roots can act as an attractant for Aphanomyces euteiches zoospores.
tangeritin · 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxyflavone · 4',5,6,7,8-pentamethoxy-flavone
Tangeretin is an O-polymethoxylated flavone that is found in tangerine and other citrus peels. Tangeretin strengthens the cell wall and acts as a plant's defensive mechanism against disease-causing pathogens. It has also been used as a marker compound to detect contamination in citrus juices.
Osthol is an O-methylated coumarin. It is a calcium channel blocker, found in plants such as Cnidium monnieri, Angelica archangelica and Angelica pubescens.
Magnolol is an organic compound that is classified as lignan. It is a bioactive compound found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) or in M. grandiflora.
isoandrographolide · 17-hydro-9-dehydro-andrographolide
Andrographolide is a labdane diterpenoid that has been isolated from the stem and leaves of Andrographis paniculata. Andrographolide is an extremely bitter substance. Andrographolide has been studied for its effects on cell signaling, immunomodulation, and stroke.
piperine (7780-20-3, 94-62-2)
piperine, (Z,Z)-isomer · 1-piperoylpiperidine · piperine, (E,Z)-isomer
Piperine, along with its isomer chavicine, is the alkaloid responsible for the pungency of black pepper and long pepper. It has been used in some forms of traditional medicine.
3,3',4',5,7-pentahydroxyflavone · dikvertin
Quercetin is a plant polyphenol from the flavonoid group, found in many fruits, vegetables, leaves, and grains. It can be used as an ingredient in supplements, beverages, or foods.
diethylstilbestrol (6898-97-1, 56-53-1, 22610-99-7, 64-67-5)
Stilbestrol · Distilbène · Stilbene Estrogen
silibinin (65666-07-1, 22888-70-6)
silybin · Hepatos · Hepar-Pasc
Silibinin (INN), also known as silybin (both from Silybum, the generic name of the plant from which it is extracted), is the major active constituent of silymarin, a standardized extract of the milk thistle seeds, containing a mixture of flavonolignans consisting of silibinin, isosilibinin, silicristin, silidianin, and others. Silibinin itself is a mixture of two diastereomers, silybin A and silybin B, in approximately equimolar ratio. The mixture exhibits a number of pharmacological effects, particularly in the liver, and there is some clinical evidence for the use of silibinin as a supportive element in alcoholic and child grade 'A' liver cirrhosis.
Parthenolide is a sesquiterpene lactone of the germacranolide class which occurs naturally in the plant feverfew (Tanacetum parthenium), after which it is named. It is found in highest concentration in the flowers and fruit.
shikonin (54952-43-1, 517-88-4)
Alkannin is a natural dye that is obtained from the extracts of plants from the borage family Alkanna tinctoria that are found in the south of France. The dye is used as a food coloring and in cosmetics. It is used as a red-brown food additive in regions such as Australia, and is designated in Europe as the E number E103, but is no longer approved for use.