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www.sigmaaldrich.com, Drugs acting on the genito-urinary system, Phytoestrogens

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Resveratrol (501-36-0)  
Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxy-trans-stilbene) is a stilbenoid, a type of natural phenol, and a phytoalexin produced by several plants in response to injury or, when the plant is under attack by pathogens such as bacteria or fungi. Sources of resveratrol in food include the skin of grapes, blueberries, raspberries, mulberries. Although it is used as a dietary supplement, there is no good evidence that consuming resveratrol affects life expectancy or human health.
kaempferol (520-18-3)  
kempferol  ·  3,4',5,7-tetrahydroxyflavone
Kaempferol is a natural flavonol, a type of flavonoid, found in a variety of plants and plant-derived foods. Kaempferol is a yellow crystalline solid with a melting point of 276–278 °C (529–532 °F). It is slightly soluble in water and highly soluble in hot ethanol, ethers, and DMSO.
Hydroxytyrosol (10597-60-1)  
Hydroxytyrosol is a phenylethanoid, a type of phenolic phytochemical with antioxidant properties in vitro. In nature, hydroxytyrosol is found in olive leaf and olive oil, in the form of its elenolic acid ester oleuropein and, especially after degradation, in its plain form. Hydroxytyrosol itself in pure form is a colorless, odorless liquid.
8-Prenylnaringenin (53846-50-7)  
8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN), also known as flavaprenin, (S)-8-dimethylallylnaringenin, hopein, or sophoraflavanone B, is a prenylflavonoid phytoestrogen. It is reported to be the most estrogenic phytoestrogen known. The compound is equipotent at ERα and ERβ, and acts as a full agonist of ERα.
8-isopentenylnaringenin (68682-02-0)  
8-Prenylnaringenin (8-PN), also known as flavaprenin, (S)-8-dimethylallylnaringenin, hopein, or sophoraflavanone B, is a prenylflavonoid phytoestrogen. It is reported to be the most estrogenic phytoestrogen known. The compound is equipotent at ERα and ERβ, and acts as a full agonist of ERα.

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Isoflavone (574-12-9)  
Isoflavones are a type of naturally occurring isoflavonoids, many of which act as phytoestrogens in mammals. Isoflavones are produced almost exclusively by the members of the Fabaceae (i.e., Leguminosae, or bean) family. Although isoflavones and closely related phytoestrogens are sold as dietary supplements, there is little scientific evidence for either the safety of long-term supplementation or of health benefits from these compounds.
methyltestosterone (262423-02-9, 58-18-4)  
Android  ·  Oreton  ·  Metandren
Methyltestosterone, sold under the brand names Android, Metandren, and Testred among others, is an androgen and anabolic steroid (AAS) medication which is used in the treatment of low testosterone levels in men, delayed puberty in boys, at low doses as a component of menopausal hormone therapy for menopausal symptoms like hot flashes, osteoporosis, and low sexual desire in women, and to treat breast cancer in women. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of methyltestosterone include symptoms of masculinization like acne, increased hair growth, voice changes, and increased sexual desire.
biochanin A (491-80-5)  
genistein 4-methyl ether  ·  biochanin A, 14C-labeled
Biochanin A is an O-methylated isoflavone. It is a natural organic compound in the class of phytochemicals known as flavonoids. Biochanin A can be found in red clover in soy, in alfalfa sprouts, in peanuts, in chickpea (Cicer arietinum) and in other legumes.
diethylstilbestrol (6898-97-1, 56-53-1, 22610-99-7, 64-67-5)  
Stilbestrol  ·  Distilbène  ·  Stilbene Estrogen
ethisterone (434-03-7)  
Pregneninolone  ·  Anhydrohydroxyprogesterone  ·  17 alpha Ethynyltestosterone
Ethisterone (brand names Proluton C, Pranone among others), also known as ethinyltestosterone, pregneninolone, or anhydrohydroxyprogesterone, is a progestin with androgenic activity which was derived from testosterone and was introduced for medical use in 1939. It was the second progestogen to be marketed (intramuscular progesterone was introduced as Proluton in 1934) and was both the first orally active progestogen and the first progestin (synthetic progestogen) to be introduced. Although ethisterone has largely been superseded by newer drugs and is now little used, it reportedly continues to be available in some countries.
daidzein (486-66-8)  
diadzein
Daidzein (7-hydroxy-3-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-4H-chromen-4-one) is a naturally occurring compound found exclusively in soybeans and other legumes and structurally belongs to a class of compounds known as isoflavones. Daidzein and other isoflavones are produced in plants through the phenylpropanoid pathway of secondary metabolism and are used as signal carriers, and defense responses to pathogenic attacks. In humans, recent research has shown the viability of using daidzein in medicine for menopausal relief, osteoporosis, blood cholesterol, and lowering the risk of some hormone-related cancers, and heart disease.
Equol (531-95-3)  
6' Hydroxy Equol  ·  4' O Methyl Equol  ·  4' methoxy 7 isoflavanol
Equol (4',7-isoflavandiol) is an isoflavandiol metabolized from daidzein, a type of isoflavone found in soybeans and other plant sources, by bacterial flora in the intestines. While endogenous estrogenic hormones such as estradiol are steroids, equol is a nonsteroidal estrogen. However, only about 30-50% of people have intestinal bacteria that make equol.
Melatonin (8041-44-9, 73-31-4)  
Melatonin, also known as N-acetyl-5-methoxy tryptamine, is a hormone that is produced by the pineal gland in animals and regulates sleep and wakefulness. Melatonin is also produced in plants where it functions as a first line of defense against oxidative stress. In animals, melatonin is involved in the entrainment (synchronization) of the circadian rhythms including sleep-wake timing, blood pressure regulation, seasonal reproduction, and many others.
flutamide (13311-84-7)  
Eulexin  ·  Euflex  ·  SCH 13521
Flutamide, sold under the brand name Eulexin among others, is a nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) which is used primarily to treat prostate cancer. It is also used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, and high androgen levels in women. It is taken by mouth, usually three times per day.
bicalutamide (90357-06-5)  
Casodex  ·  4'-cyano-3-(4-fluorophenylsulfonyl)-2-hydroxy-2-methyl-3'-(trifluoromethyl)propionanilide  ·  ICI 176334
Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer. It is typically used together with a gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogue or surgical removal of the testicles to treat advanced prostate cancer. Bicalutamide may also be used to treat excessive hair growth in women, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, to treat early puberty in boys, and to prevent overly long-lasting erections in men.
raloxifene (84449-90-1)  
Raloxifene, sold under the brand name Evista among others, is a medication which is used in the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women and to reduce the risk of breast cancer in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis or at high risk for breast cancer. It is taken by mouth. Side effects of raloxifene include hot flashes, leg cramps, and an increased risk of blood clots and other cardiovascular events such as stroke.
Nobiletin (478-01-3)  
Nobiletin is a flavonoid isolated from citrus peels. It is an O-methylated flavone that has the activity to rescue bulbectomy-induced memory impairment.
Magnolol (528-43-8)  
Magnolol is an organic compound that is classified as lignan. It is a bioactive compound found in the bark of the Houpu magnolia (Magnolia officinalis) or in M. grandiflora.
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