Kappa agonists (2)
morphine (64-31-3, 57-27-2)
Morphia · Morphine Sulfate · MS Contin
Morphine is a pain medication of the opiate variety which is found naturally in a number of plants and animals. It acts directly on the central nervous system (CNS) to decrease the feeling of pain. It can be taken for both acute pain and chronic pain.
Hodgkinsine is an alkaloid found in plants of the Psychotria genus, particularly Psychotria colorata, although it is also found in Psychotria lyciiflora and probably other species in this family, as well as in the related species Calycodendron milnei. Hodgkinsine has antiviral, antibacterial and antifungal effects, but has mainly been researched for the analgesic effects that it produces, and is thought to be one of the components responsible for the analgesic effects seen when Psychotria colorata is used in traditional medical practice in humans. It has been found to act as both a mu opioid agonist and an NMDA antagonist, both of which are mechanisms of action shared with commonly used painkillers (morphine and ketamine respectively, and which occur concurrently in the clinical analgesics tramadol and levorphanol).