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Erlotinib hydrochloride (trade name Tarceva) is a drug used to treat non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), pancreatic cancer and several other types of cancer. It is a receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor, which acts on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). It is marketed in the United States by Genentech and OSI Pharmaceuticals and elsewhere by Roche.
Nilotinib (AMN107, trade name Tasigna), in the form of the hydrochloride monohydrate salt, is a small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor approved for the treatment of imatinib-resistant chronic myelogenous leukemia. Structurally related to imatinib, it was developed based on the structure of the Abl-imatinib complex to address imatinib intolerance and resistance. Nilotinib is a selective Bcr-Abl kinase inhibitor that is 10–30 fold more potent than imatinib in inhibiting Bcr-Abl tyrosine kinase activity and proliferation of Bcr-Abl expressing cells.
Sorafenib (co-developed and co-marketed by Bayer and Onyx Pharmaceuticals as Nexavar), is a kinase inhibitor drug approved for the treatment of primary kidney cancer (advanced renal cell carcinoma), advanced primary liver cancer (hepatocellular carcinoma), and radioactive iodine resistant advanced thyroid carcinoma.
Gefitinib (ZD1839) (INN, , trade name Iressa) is a drug used for certain breast, lung and other cancers. Gefitinib is an EGFR inhibitor, like erlotinib, which interrupts signaling through the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) in target cells. Therefore, it is only effective in cancers with mutated and overactive EGFR.
Lestaurtinib (rINN, codenamed CEP-701) is a tyrosine kinase inhibitor structurally related to staurosporine. This semisynthetic derivative of the indolocarbazole K252a was investigated by Cephalon as a treatment for various types of cancer. It is an inhibitor of the kinases fms-like tyrosine kinase 3 (FLT3), Janus kinase 2 (JAK2), tropomyosin receptor kinase (trk) A (TrkA), TrkB and TrkC.
Grandinin is an ellagitannin. It can be found in Melaleuca quinquenervia leaves and in oaks species like the North American white oak (Quercus alba) and European red oak (Quercus robur). It shows antioxydant activity.