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Cyclic compounds (39)
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Imidacloprid (138261-41-3, 105827-78-9)  
Imidacloprid is a systemic insecticide that acts as an insect neurotoxin and belongs to a class of chemicals called the neonicotinoids which act on the central nervous system of insects, with much lower toxicity to mammals. The chemical works by interfering with the transmission of stimuli in the insect nervous system. Specifically, it causes a blockage of the nicotinergic neuronal pathway.
clonidine (4205-90-7)  
Catapres  ·  Clonidine Hydrochloride  ·  Dixarit
Clonidine (trade names Catapres, Kapvay, Nexiclon, Clophelin, and others) is a medication used to treat high blood pressure, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, anxiety disorders, tic disorders, withdrawal (from either alcohol, opioids, or smoking), migraine, menopausal flushing, diarrhea, and certain pain conditions. It is classified as a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist and imidazoline receptor agonist that has been in clinical use since 1966.
phentolamine (50-60-2)  
Regitine  ·  Phentolamine Mesylate  ·  Rogitine
Phentolamine (Regitine) is a reversible nonselective α-adrenergic antagonist.
antazoline (91-75-8)  
Antistine  ·  Antazoline Phosphate  ·  Antazoline Hydrochloride
Antazoline is a 1st generation antihistamine with anticholinergic properties used to relieve nasal congestion and in eye drops, usually in combination with naphazoline, to relieve the symptoms of allergic conjunctivitis. To treat allergic conjunctivitis, antazoline can be combined in a solution with tetryzoline. The drug is a Histamine H1 receptor antagonist: selectively binding to but not activating the receptor, thereby blocking the actions of endogenous histamine and subsequently leading to the temporary relief of the negative symptoms brought on by histamine.
tetrahydrozoline (84-22-0)  
Visine  ·  tetrahydrozoline hydrochloride  ·  Tyzine
Tetryzoline (INN; also known as tetrahydrozoline), a derivative of imidazoline, is found in over-the-counter eye drops and nasal sprays. Other derivatives include naphazoline, oxymetazoline, and xylometazoline. Tetrahydrozoline is an alpha agonist and its main mechanism of action is the constriction of conjunctival blood vessels.
tizanidine (51322-75-9)  
Tizanidine (trade names Zanaflex (Acorda Therapeutics), Sirdalud (Novartis), Relentus (Beximco Pharma) Is a centrally acting α2 adrenergic agonist used as a muscle relaxant. It is used to treat the spasms, cramping, and tightness of muscles caused by medical problems such as multiple sclerosis, ALS, spastic diplegia, back pain, or certain other injuries to the spine or central nervous system. It is also prescribed off-label for migraine headaches, as a sleep aid, and as an anticonvulsant.
brimonidine (59803-98-4)  
Alphagan  ·  brimonidine tartrate  ·  UK 14,304
Brimonidine is a drug used as eye drops under the brand names Alphagan and Alphagan-P to treat open-angle glaucoma or ocular hypertension, and as a gel, Mirvaso, for facial skin redness in rosacea. It acts via decreasing synthesis of aqueous humor, and increasing the amount that drains from the eye through uveoscleral outflow; brimonidine treats reddened skin (erythema) by causing narrowing of blood vessels (vasoconstriction).
apraclonidine (66711-21-5)  
Iopidine  ·  apraclonidine hydrochloride  ·  ALO 2145
Apraclonidine (INN), also known under the brand name Iopidine, is a sympathomimetic used in glaucoma therapy. It is an α2 adrenergic receptor agonist and a weak α1 adrenergic receptor agonist. Topical apraclonidine is administered at a concentration of 1% for the prevention and treatment of post-surgical intraocular pressure (IOP) elevation and 0.5% for short-term adjunctive therapy in patients on maximally tolerated medical therapy who require additional reduction of IOP.
tolazoline (59-98-3)  
Priscoline  ·  Tolazoline Hydrochloride  ·  Priscol
Tolazoline is a non-selective competitive α-adrenergic receptor antagonist. It is a vasodilator that is used to treat spasms of peripheral blood vessels (as in acrocyanosis). It has also been used (in conjunction with sodium nitroprusside) successfully as an antidote to reverse the severe peripheral vasoconstriction which can occur as a result of overdose with certain 5-HT2A agonist drugs such as 25I-NBOMe, DOB and Bromodragonfly (prolonged severe vasoconstriction can lead to gangrene if untreated).
xylometazoline (526-36-3)  
stas  ·  Balkis  ·  Nasan
Xylometazoline, also spelled xylomethazoline, is a medication which is used to improve symptoms of nasal congestion, allergic rhinitis, and sinusitis. Use is not recommended for more than seven days. Use is also not recommended in those less than three months of age and some say not less than 6 years of age.
Lofexidine (31036-80-3)  
Lofexidine (sold under the brand names: BritLofex and Kai Er Ding) is an α2A adrenergic receptor agonist, historically used as an antihypertensive, but more commonly used to alleviate the physical symptoms of heroin and other types of opioid withdrawal.
naphazoline (835-31-4)  
All Clear  ·  Clear Eyes  ·  Privine
Naphazoline (in the hydrochloride form) is the common name for 2-(1-naphthylmethyl)-2-imidazoline hydrochloride. It is a sympathomimetic agent with marked alpha adrenergic activity. It is a vasoconstrictor with a rapid action in reducing swelling when applied to mucous membrane.
IMAZAQUIN (81335-37-7)  
Imazaquin is an imidazolinone herbicide that effectively controls a broad spectrum of weed species. It has the formula C17H17N3O3.
ENOXIMONE (77671-31-9)  
Enoximone (INN, trade name Perfan) is an imidazole phosphodiesterase inhibitor. It is used in the treatment of congestive heart failure and is selective for phosphodiesterase 3.
cirazoline (59939-16-1)  
LD-3098  ·  cirazoline monohydrochloride  ·  2-(2'-cyclopropylphenoxymethyl)imidazoline hydrochloride
Cirazoline is a full agonist at the α1A adrenergic receptor, a partial agonist at both the α1B and α1D adrenergic receptors, and a nonselective antagonist to the α2 adrenergic receptor. It is believed that this combination of properties could make cirazoline an effective vasoconstricting agent. Cirazoline has also been shown to decrease food intake in rats, purportedly through activation of α1 adrenoceptors in the paraventricular nucleus in the hypothalamus of the brain.
MOXONIDINE (75438-57-2)  
Moxon  ·  Zint  ·  Cynt
Moxonidine (INN) is a new-generation centrally acting antihypertensive drug licensed for the treatment of mild to moderate essential hypertension. It may have a role when thiazides, beta-blockers, ACE inhibitors and calcium channel blockers are not appropriate or have failed to control blood pressure. In addition, it demonstrates favourable effects on parameters of the insulin resistance syndrome, apparently independent of blood pressure reduction.
Fenobam (57653-26-6)  
Fenobam is an imidazole derivative developed by McNeil Laboratories in the late 1970s as a novel anxiolytic drug with an at-the-time-unidentified molecular target in the brain. Subsequently, it was determined that fenobam acts as a potent and selective negative allosteric modulator of the metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype mGluR5, and it has been used as a lead compound for the development of a range of newer mGluR5 antagonists. Fenobam has anxiolytic effects comparable to those of benzodiazepine drugs, but was never commercially marketed for the treatment of anxiety due to dose-limiting side effects such as amnesia and psychotomimetic symptoms.
Alinidine (33178-86-8)  
Alinidine (ST567) is a negative chronotrope that was developed in the 1970s and 1980s. It causes bradycardia by inhibiting the pacemaker current by altering the maximal channel conductance and alter the voltage threshold. The development of alinidine was halted because it was not sufficiently specific for its target.
Cibenzoline (53267-01-9)  
cifenline  ·  cibenzoline succinate  ·  cifenline succinate
Cibenzoline (or cifenline) is a Class Ia antiarrhythmic. Pituxate & Ecipramidil are other gem-diphenyl cyclopropanyl drugs.
IDAZOXAN (79944-58-4)  
Idazoxan (INN) is a drug which is used in scientific research. It acts as both a selective α2 adrenergic receptor antagonist, and an antagonist for the imidazoline receptor. Idazoxan has been under investigation as an antidepressant, but it did not reach the market as such.
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