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Ketones, Psychoanaleptics

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camphor (21368-68-3, 76-22-2, 464-49-3, 8008-51-3, 464-48-2)  
Camphor, (1R)-Isomer  ·  Camphor, (+-)-Isomer  ·  Camphor, (1S)-Isomer
Camphor () is a waxy, flammable, white or transparent solid with a strong aroma. It is a terpenoid with the chemical formula C10H16O. It is found in the wood of the camphor laurel (Cinnamomum camphora), a large evergreen tree found in Asia (particularly in Sumatra and Borneo islands, Indonesia) and also of the unrelated kapur tree, a tall timber tree from the same region.
ketamine (6740-88-1)  
Ketamine Hydrochloride  ·  Ketalar  ·  Ketaset
Ketamine, sold under the brand name Ketalar among others, is a medication mainly used for starting and maintaining anesthesia. It induces a trance-like state while providing pain relief, sedation, and memory loss. Other uses include for chronic pain and for sedation in intensive care.
lobeline (90-69-7)  
Smokeless  ·  Lobeline Sulfate  ·  Inibsa Brand of Lobelin Sulfate
Lobeline is an alkaloid found in a variety of plants, particularly those in the genus Lobelia, including Indian tobacco (Lobelia inflata), Devil's tobacco (Lobelia tupa), cardinal flower (Lobelia cardinalis), great lobelia (Lobelia siphilitica), Lobelia chinensis, and Hippobroma longiflora. In its pure form, it is a white amorphous powder which is freely soluble in water.
Epipregnanolone (4406-35-3, 128-21-2)  
Epipregnanolone, also known as 3β-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one or 3β,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3β,5β-THP), is an endogenous neurosteroid. It acts as a negative allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor and reverses the effects of potentiators like allopregnanolone. Epipregnanolone is biosynthesized from progesterone by the actions of 5β-reductase and 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, with 5β-dihydroprogesterone as the intermediate in this two-step transformation.
Allopregnanolone (516-55-2)  
Pregnanolone  ·  3 alpha, 5 beta-Tetrahydroprogesterone  ·  Pregnanolone, (3beta, 5beta)-isomer
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone (USAN), is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid. It is synthesized from progesterone, and is a potent positive allosteric modulator of the action of γ-amininobutyric acid (GABA) at GABAA receptor. Allopregnanolone has effects similar to those of other positive allosteric modulators of the GABA action at GABAA receptor such as the benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity.
Pregnanolone (128-20-1)  
Pregnanolone, also known as eltanolone (INN), as well as 3α,5β-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5β-THP) or 3α-hydroxy-5β-pregnan-20-one, is an endogenous neurosteroid that is biosynthesized from progesterone. It is a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor, as well as a negative allosteric modulator of the glycine receptor, and is known to have sedative, anxiolytic, anesthetic, and anticonvulsant effects. It was investigated for clinical use as a general anesthetic, but produced unwanted side effects such as convulsions on occasion, and for this reason was never marketed.
Esketamine (33643-46-8)  
Esketamine, sold under the brand names Ketanest and Ketanest S, also known as (S)-ketamine or S(+)-ketamine, is a general anesthetic and a dissociative hallucinogen. It is the S(+) enantiomer of the drug ketamine, which is an anesthetic and dissociative similarly. Esketamine acts primarily as a non-competitive N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist.
carbenoxolone (5697-56-3)  
Carbenoxolone Sodium  ·  Biogastrone  ·  Duogastrone
Carbenoxolone (CBX) is a glycyrrhetinic acid derivative with a steroid-like structure, similar to substances found in the root of the licorice plant. Carbenoxolone is used for the treatment of peptic, esophageal and oral ulceration and inflammation. Electrolyte imbalance is a serious side effect of carbenoxolone when used systemically.
norketamine (35211-10-0)  
Norketamine, or N-desmethylketamine, is the major active metabolite of ketamine, which is formed mainly by CYP3A4. Similarly to ketamine, norketamine acts as a noncompetitive NMDA receptor antagonist (Ki = 1.7 µM and 13 µM for (S)-(+)-norketamine and (R)-(–)-norketamine, respectively), but is about 3–5 times less potent as an anesthetic in comparison. Also, similarly again to ketamine, norketamine binds to the μ- and κ-opioid receptors.
3-Hydroxypregnan-20-one (128-20-1, 4406-35-3)  
Allopregnanolone, also known as 5α-pregnan-3α-ol-20-one or 3α,5α-tetrahydroprogesterone (3α,5α-THP), as well as brexanolone (USAN), is an endogenous inhibitory pregnane neurosteroid. It is synthesized from progesterone, and is a potent positive allosteric modulator of the action of γ-amininobutyric acid (GABA) at GABAA receptor. Allopregnanolone has effects similar to those of other positive allosteric modulators of the GABA action at GABAA receptor such as the benzodiazepines, including anxiolytic, sedative, and anticonvulsant activity.
(R)-Ketamine (33643-49-1)  
Arketamine, also (R)-ketamine or (R)-(−)-ketamine, is the (R)-(−) enantiomer of ketamine. Similarly to racemic ketamine and esketamine, the S(+) enantiomer of ketamine, arketamine is biologically active; however, it is less potent as an NMDA receptor antagonist and anesthetic and thus has never been approved or marketed for clinical use as an enantiopure drug. Relative to esketamine, arketamine possesses 4–5 times lower affinity for the PCP site of the NMDA receptor.
A-Phthalimidopropiophenone (19437-20-8)  
Phthalimidopropiophenone is a chemical intermediate used in the synthesis of cathinone. It has been found to be sold on the illicit market as a controlled substance analogue, but little is currently known about its pharmacology or toxicology. Phthalimidopropiophenone is not an active stimulant, but is believed to be potentially capable of acting as a prodrug for cathinone when ingested, as similar N-substituted cathinone derivatives have been encountered by law enforcement, and were found to form cathinone in vivo by initial hydroxylation of the pyrrolidine ring followed by subsequent dehydrogenation to the corresponding lactam, then by double dealkylation of the pyrrolidine ring to form the primary amine.
Amfonelic acid (15180-02-6)  
Amfonelic acid (AFA; WIN 25,978) is a research chemical and dopaminergic stimulant with antibiotic properties.
Ketimipramine (796-29-2)  
Ketipramine (G-35,259), also known as ketimipramine or ketoimipramine, is a tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that was tested in clinical trials for the treatment of depression in the 1960s but was never marketed. It differs from imipramine in terms of chemical structure only by the addition of a ketone group, to the azepine ring, and is approximately equivalent in effectiveness as an antidepressant in comparison.
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